The ability of beta-carotene, lutein or astaxanthin to protect against UVA-induced oxidative stress in rat kidney fibroblasts (NRK) was assessed. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as indices of oxidative stress. Exposure to UVA light at a dose intensity of 5.6 mW/cm2 for 4 h resulted in a significant decrease in CAT and SOD activities and a significant increase in TBARS. No cytotoxicity, as indicated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, was observed. beta-Carotene (1 microM), lutein (1 microM) and astaxanthin (10 nM) protect against UVAlight-induced oxidative stress in vitro with astaxanthin exhibiting superior protective properties.